To access this material please log in or register

Register Authorize

Salt-dependent arterial hypertension

Kopylov F. Yu., Shchekhochikhin D. Yu.
State Budgetary Educational Institution “I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University” of the RF Ministry of Health Care, Trubetskaya 8, Bld. 2, Moscow 119991

Keywords: salt-dependent arterial hypertension

DOI: 10.18087/rhj.2014.2.1904

The connection between salt consumption and increased BP has been known for more than 100 years. Further studies identified salt-dependent and salt-resistance AH including essential hypertension and moreover, salt sensitivity in normotensive people. Salt-dependent hypertension is more common in patients with metabolic syndrome, hyperinsulinism, and in elderly people. The article describes a mechanism of salt sensitivity formation, epidemiology, and therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this common variant of essential hypertension.
  1. Ambard L, Beaujard E. Causes de l’hypertension arterielle. Arch Gen Med 1904; 81:520–533
  2. Weinberger MH. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure in humans. Hypertension. 1996;27 (3 Pt 2):481–490.
  3. Johnson RJ, Herrera-Acosta J, Schreiner GF, Rodriguez-Iturbe B. Subtle acquired renal injury as a mechanism of salt-sensitive hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2002;346 (12):913–23.
  4. Hurwitz S, Fisher ND, Ferri C, et al. Controlled analysis of blood pressure sensitivity to sodium intake: interactions with hypertension type. J Hypertens. 2003;21 (5):951–9.
  5. Weinberger MH, Miller JZ, Luft FC, Grim CE, Fineberg NS. Definitions and characteristics of sodium sensitivity and blood pressure resistance. Hypertension. 1986;8 (suppl II): II-127‑II-134.
  6. Rodriquez BL, Labarthe DR, Huang B, Lopez-Gomez J. Rise of blood pressure with age. Hypertension. 1994;24:779–785
  7. Kojima S, Murakami K, Kimura G et al. A gender difference in the association between salt sensitivity and family history of hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1992 Jan;5 (1):1–7.
  8. Laffer CL, Elijovich F. Differential predictors of insulin resistance in nondiabetic salt-resistant and salt-sensitive subjects. Hypertension. 2013;61 (3):707–15
  9. Gu D, Zhao Q, Chen J et al. Reproducibility of Blood Pressure Responses to Dietary Sodium and Potassium Interventions: The GenSalt Study. Hypertension. 2013;62 (3):499–505.
  10. Fox U, Bianchi G. The primary role of the kidney in causing blood pressure difference between the Milan hypertensive strain (MHS) and normotensive rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1976;3: (Suppl 3):71–74.
  11. Kawabe K, Watanabe TX, Shiono K, Sokabe H. Influence on blood pressure of renal isografts between spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats, utilizing F1 hybrids. Jpn Heart J. 1978 Nov;19 (6):886–94.
  12. Curtis JJ, Luke RG, Dustan HP et al. Remission of essential hypertension after renal transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1983 Oct 27;309 (17):1009–15.
  13. Borst JGG, Borst-de Geuss A. Hypertension explained by Starling's theory of circulatory homoeostasis. Lancet. 1963 Mar 30;1 (7283):677–82.
  14. Guyton AC, Coleman TG, Cowley AW Jr et al. Arterial pressure regulation: overriding dominance of the kidneys in long-term regulation in hypertension. Am J Med. 1972;52 (5):584–594.
  15. Hall JE, Brands MW, Shek EW. Central role of the kidney and abnormal fluid volume control in hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 1996 Oct;10 (10):633–9.
  16. Brenner BM, Garcia DL, Anderson S. Glomeruli and blood pressure: less of one, more the other? Am J Hypertens. 1988 Oct;1 (4 Pt 1):335–47.
  17. Lifton R. Molecular genetics of human blood pressure variation. Science. 1996 May 3;272 (5262):676–80.
  18. Cowley AW Jr, Mattson DL, Lu S, Roman RJ. The renal medulla and hypertension. Hypertension. 1995 Apr;25 (4 Pt 2):663–73.
  19. Johnson RJ, Schreiner GF. Hypothesis: the role of acquired tubulointerstitial disease in the pathogenesis of salt-dependent hypertension. Kidney Int. 1997 Nov;52 (5):1169–79.
  20. Curtis JJ, Luke RG, Jones P, Diethelm AG. Hypertension in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant patients is sodium dependent. Am J Med. 1988 Aug;85 (2):134–8.
  21. Johnson RJ1, Gordon KL, Suga S et al. Renal injury and salt-sensitive hypertension after exposure to catecholamines. Hypertension. 1999 Jul;34 (1):151–9.
  22. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group. Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressures: results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion.BMJ. 1988 Jul 30;297 (6644):319–28.
  23. Gallen IW, Rosa RM, Esparaz DY et al. On the mechanism of the effects of potassium restriction on blood pressure and renal sodium retention. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998 Jan;31 (1):19–27.
  24. Suga S, Phillips MI, Ray PE et al. Hypokalemia induces renal injury and alterations in intrarenal vasoactive mediators that favor salt sensitivity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Oct;281 (4):F620–9.
  25. Kang DH, Kim YG, Andoh TF et al. Post-cyclosporine-mediated hypertension and nephropathy: amelioration by vascular endothelial growth factor. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Apr;280 (4):F727–36.
  26. Laragh JH. Abstract, closing summary, and table of contents for Laragh's 25 lessons in pathophysiology and 12 clinical pearls for treating hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2001 Dec;14 (12):1173–7.
  27. Flack JM, Oparil S, Pratt JH et al. Efficacy and tolerability of eplerenone and losartan in hypertensive black and white patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Apr 2;41 (7):1148–55.
  28. Weinberger MH, White WB, Ruilope LM. Effects of eplerenone versus losartan in patients with low-renin hypertension. Am Heart J. 2005 Sep;150 (3):426–33.
  29. Williams TA, Mulatero P, Filigheddu et al. Role of HSD11B2 polymorphisms in essential hypertension and the diuretic response to thiazides. Kidney Int. 2005 Feb;67 (2):631–7.
  30. Ouzan J, Pérault C, Lincoff AM et al. The role of spironolactone in the treatment of patients with refractory hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2002 Apr;15 (4 Pt 1):333–9.
  31. Eide IK, Torjesen PA, Drolsum A, Babovic A, Lilledahl NP. Low-renin status in therapy-resistant hypertension: a clue to efficient treatment. J Hypertens. 2004 Nov;22 (11):2217–26.
Kopylov F. Yu., Shchekhochikhin D. Yu. Salt-dependent arterial hypertension. Russian Heart Journal. 2014;76 (2):120–122

To access this material please log in or register

Register Authorize
Ru En