To access this material please log in or register

Register Authorize

Efficacy and safety of a combination of Fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide for microAlbuminUria in patients with cardiovaScular condiTions (FAUST). Design and results of a study in subgroups of patients with and without concomitant type 2 DM

Mareev V. Yu.1, Minina Yu. V.2, Begrambekova Yu. L.1
1 – Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, "M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University", Leninskie Gory 1, GSP-1, Moscow 119991
2 – All-Russian Public Organization, "Society of experts in heart failure", Moscow, info@ossn.ru

Keywords: arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, CHF, microalbuminuria, Fosinopril, hydrochlorothiazide, treatment, safety, efficacy

DOI: 10.18087/rhfj.2016.5.2258

Background. The combination of AH and DM increases the risk for development of cardiovascular events. Impaired kidney function plays an important role in worsening prognosis for such patients. Searching for combinations of antihypertensive drugs that would improve the kidney function (GFR and degree of MAU) in AH patients both with and without diabetes is relevant. Aim. To study incidence of MAU and/or type 2 DM in a Russian cohort of patients with grade 1–2 AH and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in patients with complicated AH in a multicenter, open, prospective study. Materials and methods. The study included 1012 patients aged 18 to 80 with grade 1 or 2 essential AH from 74 investigational sites in 41 cities of the Russian Federation. Patients were divided into two groups, with (545 patients) and without (467 patients) MAU. Each group contained subgroups with or without type 2 DM. All patients received starting doses of fosinopril (10–20 mg/day) in combination with HCTZ (6.25–12.5 mg/day). Doses of the drugs were adjusted based on the control of BP. The follow-up period lasted for 16 weeks. Clinical status, changes in AH, MAU, calculated GFR , quality of life by the SF-36 questionnaire, changes in cardiovascular risk (CVR), incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components, indexes of carbohydrate metabolism (fasting glucose and HbA1C) and lipid metabolism were evaluated. Safety was assesses based on records of adverse events (AEs). Results. The incidence of MAU in the Russian cohort of AH patients was 53.9% and the presence of concomitant type 2 DM was 47.5%, which was considerably higher than in real-life clinical practice. Fosinopril and HCTZ demonstrated high hypotensive efficacy: 91.5% (without MAU) and 90.5% (with MAU) of patients without type 2 DM achieved the BP goal (BP <140/90 mm Hg). In subgroups with AH and type 2 DM, BP was under control in 54.6% (without MAU) and 51.2% (with MAU) of patients using the criterion of BP <130/80 mm Hg and in 84 and 81% of patients without MAU and with MAU, respectively, using the current criterion of BP<140/90 mm Hg. In the group of patients with MAU, MAU disappeared under the treatment in 48.6% of patients without diabetes and in 63.6% of patients with the combination of AH and type 2 DM. In 23 patients, emergence of MAU was detected (4.0% in the group without DM and 5.9% in the group with concomitant type 2 DM). In two more AH patients without type 2 DM, MAU transformed into macroalbuminuria. In total, impairment of kidney function was observed in 25 (2.5%) of 1012 patients. GFR significantly increased only in AH patients with type 2 DM, by 3.4 ml/min (p=0.017) with original MAU and by 2.3 ml/min (p=0.02) without MAU. The treatment resulted in good glycemic control and decreased the number of patients with MS. The decrease in CVR was more pronounced among non-diabetic patients; however, among diabetic patients also the number of patients with moderate CVR increased while the number of patients with high and very high CVR decreased. Analysis of all AEs distributed by severity and relationship with the treatment showed good tolerability of the study combination in all groups. Conclusion. The data obtained favor the use of the ACEI fosinopril and its combination with HCTZ in patients with grades 1 and 2 AH and type 2 DM and MAU as well as the high nephroprotective capacity and beneficial metabolic effects of these drugs.
  1. Lewington S, Clarke R , Qizilbash N, Peto R , Collins R . Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002 Dec 14;360 (9349):1903–13.
  2. Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H, Graham I, Reiner Z, Verschuren M et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur Heart J. 2012 Jul;33 (13):1635–701.
  3. Mancia G, Fagard R , Narkiewicz K, Redón J, Zanchetti A, Böhm M et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens. 2013 Jul;31 (7):1281–357.
  4. Климонтов В.В., Мякина Н.Е. Хроническая болезнь почек при сахарном диабете. – Новосибирск: Издательство НГУ, 2014. –44с [Klimontov V.V., Myakina N.E. Xronicheskaya bolezn` pochek pri saxarnom diabete. – Novosibirsk: Izdatel`stvo NGU, 2014. – 44s].
  5. Свищенко Е.П. Артериальная гипертензия и патология почек. Здоров’я Украiни. 2006:13–17 [Svishhenko E.P. Arterial`naya gipertenziya i patologiya pochek. Zdorov’ya Ukraini. 2006:13–17].
  6. O’Connor NR , Corcoran AM. End-Stage Renal Disease: Symptom Management and Advance Care Planning. Am Family Physician. 2012;85 (7):705–10.
  7. Remuzzi G, Perico N, Macia M, Ruggenenti P. The role of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2005 Dec;99:S57–65.
  8. Schlaich MP, Socratous F, Hennebry S, Eikelis N, Lambert EA, Straznicky N et al. Sympathetic activation in chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 May;20 (5):933–9.
  9. Siragy HM, Carey RM. Role of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2010;31 (6):541–50.
  10. Ronco C, Haapio M, House AA, Anavekar N, Bellomo R . Cardiorenal syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Nov 4;52 (19):1527–39.
  11. Weiner DE, Tighiouart H, Elsayed EF, Griffith JL, Salem DN, Levey AS, Sarnak MJ. The Framingham predictive instrument in chronic kidney disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Jul 17;50 (3):217–24.
  12. Parving HH. Initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 1996 Nov 28;335 (22):1682–3.
  13. Redon J, Williams B. Microalbuminuria in essential hypertension: redefining the threshold. J Hypertens. 2002 Mar;20 (3):353–5.
  14. Jensen JS, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Strandgaard S, Schroll M, Borch-Johnsen K. Arterial hypertension, microalbuminuria and risk of ischemic heart disease. Hypertension. 2000 Apr;35 (4):898–903.
  15. De Leeuw PW, Ruilope LM, Palmer CR , Brown MJ, Castaigne A, Mancia G et al. Clinical significance of renal function in hypertensive patients at high risk: results from the INSIGHT trial. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Dec 13–27;164 (22):2459–64.
  16. Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, Coresh J, Culleton B, Hamm LL et al. Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology and Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation. 2003 Oct 28;108 (17):2154–69.
  17. Gerstein HC, Mann JF, Yi Q, Zinman B, Dinneen SF, Hoogwerf B et al. Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA. 2001 Jul 25;286 (4):421–6.
  18. Wachtell K, Ibsen H, Olsen MH, Borch-Johnsen K, Lindholm LH, Mogensen CE et al. Albuminuria and cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Dec 2;139 (11):901–6.
  19. Jager A, Kostense PJ, Ruhe HG, Heine RJ, Nijpels G, Dekker JM et al. Microalbuminuria and peripheral arterial disease are independent predictors of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, especially among hypertensive subjects: five-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999 Mar;19 (3):617–24.
  20. Bigazzi R , Bianchi S, Baldari D, Campese VM. Microalbuminuria predicts cardiovascular events and renal insufficiency in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 1998 Sep;16 (9):1325–33.
  21. Arnlov J, Evans JC, Meigs JB, Wang TJ, Fox CS, Levy D et al. Low-grade albuminuria and incidence of cardiovascular disease events in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic individuals: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2005 Aug 16;112 (7):969–75.
  22. Арутюнов Г.П., Чернявская Т.К., Лукичева Т.И., Баланина Н.О., Корсунская М.И., Рылова А.К. Микроальбуминурия: клинические аспекты и пути медикаментозной коррекции. Клиническая фармакология и терапия. 1999;8 (3):23–28 [Arutyunov G.P., Chernyavskaya T.K., Lukicheva T.I., Balanina N.O., Korsunskaya M.I., Ry`lova A.K. Mikroal`buminuriya: klinicheskie aspekty` i puti medikamentoznoj korrekczii. Klinicheskaya farmakologiya i terapiya. 1999;8 (3):23–28].
  23. Matsushita K, van der Velde M, Astor BC, Woodward M, Levey AS, de Jong PE et al. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010 Jun 12;375 (9731):2073–81.
  24. Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood pressure lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration. Lancet. 2000 Dec 9;356 (9246):1955–64.
  25. Staessen JA, Wang JG, Thijs L. Cardiovascular protection and blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2001 Oct 20;358 (9290):1305–15.
  26. Pahor M, Psaty B, Alderman M, Applegate WB, Williamson JD, Furberg CD. Therapeutic benefits of ACE inhibition and other antihypertensive drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000 Jul;23 (7):888–92.
  27. Schmieder RE, Hilgers KF, Schlaich MP, Schmidt BM. Renin-angiotensin system and cardiovascular risk. Lancet. 2007 Apr 7;369 (9568):1208–19.
  28. Kunz R , Friedrich C, Wolbers M, Mann JF. Meta-analysis: effect of monotherapy and combination therapy with inhibitors of the rennin angiotensin system on proteinuria in renal disease. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Jan 1;148 (1):30–48.
  29. Ruggenenti P, Fassi A, Ilieva AP, Iliev IP, Chiurchiu C, Rubis N et al. Effects of verapamil added-on trandolapril therapy in hypertensive type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria: the BENEDICT-B randomized trial. J Hypertens. 2011 Feb;29 (2):207–16.
  30. Lau T, Carlsson PO, Leung PS. Evidence for a local angiotensin-generating system and dose-dependent inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release by angiotensin II in isolated pancreatic islets. Diabetologia. 2004 Feb;47 (2):240–8.
  31. Califf RM. Insulin resistance: a global epidemic in need of effective therapies. Eur Heart J. 2003 Apr 1;5 (Suppl C): C13–8.
  32. Sica DA, Cutler RE, Parmer RJ, Ford NF. Comparison of the steady-state pharmacokinetics of fosinopril, lisinopril and enalapril in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1991 May;20 (5):420–7.
  33. Hui KK, Duchin KL, Kripalani KJ, Chan D, Kramer PK, Yanagawa N. Pharmacokinetics of fosinopril in patients with various degrees of renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Apr;49 (4):457–67.
  34. Singhvi SM, Duchin KL, Morrison RA, Willard DA, Everett DW, Frantz M. Disposition of fosinopril sodium in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1988 Jan;25 (1):9–15.
  35. Шальнова С.А., Кукушкин С., Маношкина Е., Тимофеева Т. Артериальная гипертензия и приверженность терапии. Врач. 2009;12:39–42 [Shal`nova S. A., Kukushkin S., Manoshkina E., Timofeeva T. Arterial`naya gipertenziya i priverzhennost` terapii. Vrach. 2009;12:39–42].
  36. Бойцов С.А., Баланова Ю.А., Шальнова С.А., Деев А.Д., Артамонова Г.В., Гатагонова Т.М. и др. Артериальная гипертония среди лиц 25–64 лет: распространенность, осведомленность, лечение и контроль По материалам исследования ЭССЕ. Кардиоваскулярная терапия и профилактика. 2014;13 (4):4–14 [Bojczov S.A., Balanova Yu.A., Shal`nova S. A., Deev A.D., Artamonova G.V., Gatagonova T.M. i dr. Arterial`naya gipertoniya sredi licz 25–64 let: rasprostranennost`, osvedomlennost`, lechenie i kontrol` Po materialam issledovaniya E`SSE. Kardiovaskulyarnaya terapiya i profilaktika. 2014;13 (4):4–14].
  37. Bartnik M, Ryden L, Ferrari R , Malmberg K, Pyorala K, Simoons M et al. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease across Europe. The Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Eur Heart J. 2004 Nov;25 (21):1880–90.
  38. Kotseva K, Wood D, De Bacquer D, De Backer G, Ryden L, Jennings C et al. EUROASPIRE IV: A European Society of Cardiology survey on the lifestyle, risk factor and therapeutic management of coronary patients from 24 European countries. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Apr;23 (6):636–48.
  39. Gyberg V, De Bacquer D, De Backer G, Jennings C, Kotseva K, Mellbin L et al. Patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes need improved management: a report from the EUROASPIRE IV survey: a registry from the EuroObservational Research Programme of the European Society of Cardiology. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015 Oct 1;14:133.
  40. Леонова М.В., Белоусов Д.Ю., Штейнберг Л.Л., Галицкий А.А., Белоусов Ю.Б. Анализ врачебной практики проведения антигипертензивной терапии в России (по данным исследования ПИФАГОР III). Фарматека. 2009;12:114–9 [Leonova M.V., Belousov D.Yu., Shtejnberg L.L., Galiczkij A.A., Belousov Yu.B. Analiz vrachebnoj praktiki provedeniya antigipertenzivnoj terapii v Rossii (po danny`m issledovaniya PIFAGOR III). Farmateka. 2009;12:114–9].
  41. Чазова И.Е., Ратова Л.Г., Бойцов С.А., Небиеридзе Д.В., Карпов Ю.А., Белоусов Ю.Б. и др. Диагностика и лечение артериальной гипертензии (рекомендации Российского медицинского общества по артериальной гипертонии и Всероссийского научного общества кардиологов). Системные гипертензии. 2010;3:5–26 [Chazova I.E., Ratova L.G., Bojczov S.A., Nebieridze D.V., Karpov Yu.A., Belousov Yu.B. i dr. Diagnostika i lechenie arterial`noj gipertenzii (rekomendaczii Rossijskogo mediczinskogo obshhestva po arterial`noj gipertonii i vserossijskogo nauchnogo obshhestva kardiologov). Sistemny`e gipertenzii. 2010;3:5–26].
  42. Remko M. Acidity, Lipophilicity, solubility, absorption, and polar surface area of some ACE inhibitors. Chem Pap. 2007;61 (2):133–41.
  43. Shahinfar S, Shaw WC. Pharmacokinetics of fosinopril. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992 Nov;52 (5):569.
  44. Ford NF, Lasseter KC, Van Harken DR, Hammett JL, Raymond R, Manning J. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fosinopril and fosinoprilat in patients with hepatic impairment. J Clin Pharmacol. 1995 Feb;35 (2):145–50.
  45. David D, Jallad N, Germino FW, Willett MS, de Silva J, Weidner SM, Mills DJ. A Comparison of the cough profile of fosinopril and enalapril in hypertensive patients with a history of ACE inhibitor-associated cough. Am J Ther. 1995 Oct;2 (10):806–13.
  46. Wagstaff AJ, Davies R , McTavish D. Fosinopril: a reappraisal of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in essential hypertension. Drugs. 1996 May;51 (5):777−91.
  47. Карпов Ю.А., Мареев В.Ю., Чазова И.Е. Российские программы оценки эффективности лечения фозиноприлом больных с артериальной гипертонией и сердечной недостаточностью. Проект ТРИ Ф (ФЛАГ, ФАСОН, ФАГОТ). Журнал Сердечная Недостаточность. 2003;4 (5):261–5 [Karpov Yu.A., Mareev V.Yu., Chazova I.E. Rossijskie programmy` oczenki e`ffektivnosti lecheniya fozinoprilom bol`ny`x s arterial`noj gipertoniej i serdechnoj nedostatochnost`yu. Proekt TRI F (FLAG, FASON, FAGOT). Zhurnal Serdechnaya Nedostatochnost`. 2003;4 (5):261–5].
  48. Карпов Ю.А. Фозиноприл при лечении артериальной гипертонии (ФЛАГ): российская программа оценки практической достижимости целевых уровней артериального давления. Русский медицинский журнал. 2001;10:406–10 [Karpov Yu.A. Fozinopril pri lechenii arterial`noj gipertonii (FLAG): rossijskaya programma oczenki prakticheskoj dostizhimosti czelevy`x urovnej arterial`nogo davleniya. Russkij mediczinskij zhurnal. 2001;10:406–10].
  49. Чазова И.Е. Первые результаты исследования ФАГОТ (Фармако-экономическая оценка использования ингибиторов АПФ в амбулаторном лечении больных с артериальной гипертонией осложненного генеза). Consilium medicum. 2002;4 11):596–8 [Chazova I.E. Pervy`e rezul`taty` issledovaniya FAGOT (Farmako-e`konomicheskaya oczenka ispol`zovaniya ingibitorov APF v ambulatornom lechenii bol`ny`x s arterial`noj gipertoniej oslozhnennogo geneza). Consilium medicum. 2002;4 (11):596–8].
  50. Shulman NB, Ford CE, Hall WD, Blaufox MD, Simon D, Langford HG, Schneider KA. Prognostic value of serum creatinine and the effect of treatment of hypertension on renal function. Results from the hypertension detection and follow-up program. The Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group. Hypertension. 1989 May;13 (5 Suppl): I80–93.
  51. Mattock MB, Barnes DJ, Viberti G, Keen H, Burt D, Hughes JM et al. Microalbuminuria and coronary heart disease in NIDDM: an incidence study. Diabetes. 1998 Nov;47 (11):1786–92.
  52. Mann JF, Yi QL, Gerstein HC. Albuminuria as a predictor of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in people with known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2004 Nov;92: S59–62.
  53. Ruilope LM, Salvetti A, Jamerson K, Hansson L, Warnold I, Wedel H,Zanchetti A. Renal function and intensive lowering of blood pressure in hypertensive participants of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001 Feb;12 (2):218–25.
  54. Schiffrin EL, Lipman ML, Mann JF. Chronic kidney disease: effects on the cardiovascular system. Circulation. 2007 Jul;116 (1):85–97.
  55. Кобалава Ж.Д., Виллевальде С.В., Ефремовцева М.А. Самостоятельное диагностическое значение микроальбуминурии и расчетной скорости клубочковой фильтрации у больных артериальной гипертонией для выявления субклинического поражения почек. Кардиология. 2010;50 (4):12–7 [Kobalava Zh.D., Villeval`de S. V., Efremovczeva M.A. Samostoyatel`noe diagnosticheskoe znachenie mikroal`buminurii i raschetnoj skorosti klubochkovoj fil`traczii u bol`ny`x arterial`noj gipertoniej dlya vy`yavleniya subklinicheskogo porazheniya pochek. Kardiologiya. 2010;50 (4):12–7].
  56. Di Micco L, Manno C, Cianciaruso B, Strippoli G. The usefulness of Cochrane systematic reviews in nephrology. G Ital Nefrol. 2009 Jan-Feb;26 (1):38–54.
  57. Asselbergs FW, Diercks GF, Hillege HL, van Boven AJ, Janssen WM, Voors AA et al. Effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on cardiovascular events in subjects with microalbuminuria. Circulation. 2004 Nov 2;110 (18):2809–16.
  58. Toyama T, Furuichi K, Ninomiya T, Shimizu M, Hara A, Iwata Y et al. The impacts of albuminuria and low eGFR on the Risk of cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, and renal events in diabetic patients: meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 30;8 (8):e71810.
  59. Reneland R , Andersson PE, Haenni A, Lithell H. Metabolic effects of long-term angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with fosinopril in patients with essential hypertension: relationship to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1994;46 (5):431–6.
  60. Мамедов М.И., Косматова О.В., Хадипаш Л.А., Ратникова Л.А., Киселёва Н.В., Оганов Р.Г. Сочетается ли гипотензивный эффект энама с действием на метаболические нарушения у больных с синдромом инсулинорезистентности. Российский кардиологический журнал. 2002;3:55–8 [Mamedov M.I., Kosmatova O.V., Xadipash L.A., Ratnikova L.A., Kiselyova N.V., Oganov R .G. Sochetaetsya li gipotenzivny`j e`ffekt e`nama s dejstviem na metabolicheskie narusheniya u bol`ny`x s sindromom insulinorezistentnosti. Rossijskij kardiologicheskij zhurnal. 2002;3:55–8].
  61. Ueahara M, Kishikawa H, Isami S, Kisanuki K, Ohkubo Y, Miyamura N et al. Effect on insulin sensitivity of аngiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors with or without a sulphydryl group: bradykinin may improve insulin resistance in dogs and humans. Diabetologia. 1994 Mar;37 (3):300–7 [Ueahara M, Kishikawa H, Isami S, Kisanuki K, Ohkubo Y, Miyamura N et al. Effect on insulin sensitivity of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors with or without a sulphydryl group: bradykinin may improve insulin resistance in dogs and humans. Diabetologia. 1994 Mar;37 (3):300–7].
  62. Tomiyama H, Kushiro T, Abeta H, Ishii T, Takahashi A, Furukawa L et al. Kinins contribute to the improvement of insulin sensitivity during treatment with аngiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Hypertension. 1994 Apr;23 (4):450–5 [Tomiyama H, Kushiro T, Abeta H, Ishii T, Takahashi A, Furukawa L et al. Kinins contribute to the improvement of insulin sensitivity during treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Hypertension. 1994 Apr;23 (4):450–5].
  63. Henriksen EJ, Jacob S, Kinnick TR , Youngblood EB, Schmit MB, Dietze GJ. ACE inhibition and glucose transport in insulin-resistant muscle: roles of bradykinin and nitric oxide. Am J Physiol. 1999 Jul;277 (1 PT 2):R332–6.
  64. Torlone E, Rambotti AM, Perriello G, Botta G, Santeusanio F, Brunetti P, Bolli GB. ACE-inhibition increases hepatic and extrahepatic sensitivity to insulin in patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension. Diabetologia. 1991 Feb;34 (2):119–25.
  65. Carlsson PO, Berne C, Jansson L. Angiotensin II and the endocrine pancreas effects on islet blood flow and insulin secretion in rats. Diabetologia. 1998 Feb;41 (2):127–33.
  66. Мычка В.Б., Верткин А.Л., Вардаев Л.И., Ипаткин Р.В., Калинкин А.Л., Кузнецова И.В. и др. Рекомендации экспертов Российского кардиологического общества по диагностике и лечению метаболического синдрома. Третий пересмотр. 2013. – С54 [My`chka V. B., Vertkin A.L., Vardaev L.I., Ipatkin R .V., Kalinkin A.L., Kuzneczova I.V. i dr. Rekomendaczii e`kspertov Rossijskogo kardiologicheskogo obshhestva po diagnostike i lecheniyu metabolicheskogo sindroma. Tretij peresmotr. 2013. – S54].
  67. Dzau V, Braunwald E. Resolved and unresolved issues in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease: a workshop consensus statement. Am Heart J. 1991 Apr;121 (4 Pt 1):1244–63.
  68. Tatti P, Pahor M, Byington RP, Di Mauro P, Guarisco R , Strollo G, Strollo F. Outcome results of the Fosinopril Versus Amlodipine Cardiovascular Events Randomized Trial (FACET) in patients with hypertension and NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1998 Apr;21 (4):597–603.
  69. Molnar MZ, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Lott EH, Lu JL, Malakauskas SM, Ma JZ et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker use, and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Feb 25;63 (7):650–8.
  70. Apperloo AJ, de Zeeuw D, de Jong PE. A short-term antihypertensive treatment-induced fall in glomerular filtration rate predicts long-term stability of renal function. Kidney Int. 1997 Mar;51 (3):793–7.
Mareev V.Yu., Minina Yu.V., Begrambekova Yu.L.Efficacy and safety of a combination of Fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide for microAlbuminUria in patients with cardiovaScular condiTions (FAUST). Design and results of a study in subgroups of patients with and without concomitant type 2 DM. Russian Heart Failure Journal. 2016;17 (5):312–332

To access this material please log in or register

Register Authorize
Ru En