Russian Heart Failure Journal 2009year Effect of statins on immune components of inflammatory response in patients with CHF caused by ischemic heart disease.
Effect of statins on immune components of inflammatory response in patients with CHF caused by ischemic heart disease.
Tatenkulova C. H., Belenkov Yu. N., Mareev V. Yu., Masenko B. P., Balakhonova T. V., Tripoten’ M. I, Kaznatcheeva E. I., Belyavsky E. A., Tkachev G. A., Zykov K. A.
Urgency. Importance of the understanding of immune component for the CHF diagnosis and treatment was shown in the large amount of recent year’s studies. Aim. To study statin’s effect on the immune components of the inflammatory reaction in CHF of Ischemic Etiology. Materials and methods. In 43 patients with IHD and CHF I–IV functional classes markers of endothelial and left ventricular dysfunction, and immune activation were evaluated. In this study were included 10 (23 %) patients with I functional class of CHF, 10 (23 %) patients with II functional class of CHF, 11 (26 %) patients with III functional class of CHF and 12 (28 %) patients of IV functional class of CHF. All patients were passing through the echo-CG / High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), Immunoglobulin G, A, M (IgG, IgA, IgM), sIL-2R, IL-8, NT-proBNP, IL-6, IL-18, IL-10, IFN-γ, endoteline and NO were evaluated during the study. After 3 weeks «cleaning» period all patients was receiving atorvastatin for 6 months. Results. Treatment with statin was associated with decreasing in CHF functional class and increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines levels. At the same time improving in endothelial function was not detected during and after treatment period. Treatment with atorvastatin was associated with different changes in anti-inflammatory factors (decrease in hsCRP, IFN-γ, IL-8, sIL-2R and NO metabolites and increase in IL‑6, IgG). The conclusion could be made that statin therapy is insufficient for controlling all levels of inflammatory process in atherosclerosis.
- Cleland JG, Cowburn PJ, Morgan K. Neuroendocrine activation after myocardial infarction: causes and consequences. Heart. 1996; 76 (3 Suppl 3):53–59.
- McMurray J, McDonagh T, Morrison CE, Dargie HJ. Trends in hospitalization for heart failure in Scotland 1980–1990. Eur Heart J. 1993; 14 (9):1158–1162.
- Chrysohoou C, Pitsavos C, Barbetseas J et al.Chronic systemic inflammation accompanies impaired ventricular diastolic function, detected by Doppler imaging, in patients with newly diagnosed systolic heart failure (Hellenic Heart Failure Study). Heart Vessels. 2009; 24 (1):22–26.
- Pop D, Zdrenghea D, Cebanu M, Borz B. Correlation between sTNFR-I and other negative prognostic factors in patients with chronic heart failure. Rom J Intern Med. 2007; 45 (3):243‑249.
- Sánchez-Lázaro IJ, Almenar L, Reganon E et al. Inflammatory markers in stable heart failure and their relationship with functional class. Int J Cardiol. 2007; 129 (3):388‑393.
- Kleemann R, Zadelaar S, Kooistra T. Cytokines and atherosclerosis: a comprehensive review of studies in mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2008; 79 (3):360‑376.
- Rugina M, Caras I, Jurcut R et al. Systemic inflammatory markers in patients with aortic sclerosis. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2007; 66 (1–2):10–16.
- Gotsman I, Stabholz A, Planer D et al. Serum cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 associated with the severity of coronary artery disease: indicators of an active inflammatory burden? Isr Med Assoc J. 2008; 10 (7):494‑498.
- Gullestad L, Aukrust P. Review of trials in chronic heart failure showing broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory approaches. Am J Cardiol. 2005; 95 (11A):17C-23C; discussion 38C-40C.
- Dickinson MG, Ip JH, Olshansky B et al. SCD-HeFT Investigators. Statin use was associated with reduced mortality in both ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy and in patients with implantable defibrillators: mortality data and mechanistic insights from the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT). Am Heart J. 2007; 153 (4):573‑578.
- Kwak B, Mulhaupt F, Myit S, Mach F. Statins as newly recognized type of immunomodulator. Nat Med. 2000; 6 (12):1399–1402.
- Crisby M, Nordin-Fredriksson G, Shah PK et al. Pravastatin treatment increases collagen content and decreases lipid content, inflammation, metalloproteinases, and cell death in human carotid plaques: implications for plaque stabilization. Circulation. 2001; 103 (7):926‑933.
- Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FAH et al. for the JUPITER Study Group. Rosuvastatin to Prevent Vascular Events in Men and Women with Elevated C-Reactive Protein. Published at www.nejm.org November 9, 2008 (10.1056 / NEJMoa0807646).
- Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators. N Engl J Med. 1996; 335 (14):1001–1009.
- Gissi-Hf Investigators. Effect of rosuvastatin in patients with chronic heart failure (the GISSI-HF trial): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2008; 372 (9645):1231–1239.
- Athyros VG, Kakafika AI, Tziomalos K et al. CORONA, statins, and heart failure: who lost the crown? Angiology. 2008; 59 (1):5–8.
- Guyatt GH, Sullivan MJ, Thompson PJ et al. The 6‑minute walk: a new measure of exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. Can Med Assoc J. 1985; 132 (8):919‑923.
- Иванова О. В., Балахонова Т. В., Соболева Г. Н. и др. Состояние эндотелийзависимой вазодилатации плечевой артерии у больных гипертонической болезнью, оцениваемое с помощью ультразвука высокого разрешения. Кардиология. 1997; 37 (7):41–45.
- Grube M, Köck K, Oswald S et al. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 is a high-affinity transporter for atorvastatin and is expressed in the human heart. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006; 80 (6):607‑620.
- Sparrow CP, Burton CA, Hernandez M et al. Simvastatin has anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic activities independent of plasma cholesterol lowering. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001; 21 (1):115‑121.
- Wenke K, Meiser B, Thiery et al. Simvastatin reduces graft vessel disease and mortality after heart transplantation: a four – year randomized trial. Circulation. 1997; 96 (5):1398–1402.
- Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group.Randomized trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet. 1994; 344 (8934):1383–1389.
- The long-Term Investigators with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and broad range of cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339 (19):1349–1357.
- Shepherd S, Cobbe SM, Ford I et al. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group.Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterinamia. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333 (20):1301–1307.
- Downs JR, Clearfield M, Weis S et al. for the AFCAPS / TexCAPS Research Group. Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS / TexCAPS. Air Force / Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. JAMA. 1998; 279 (20):1615–1622.
- Lee SJ, Qin H, Benveniste EN. The IFN-gamma-induced transcriptional program of the CIITA gene is inhibited by statins. Eur J Immunol. 2008; 38 (8):2325–2336.
- Sola S, Mir MQ, Lerakis S et al Atorvastatin improves left ventricular systolic function and serum markers of inflammation in nonischemic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47 (2):332‑337.
- Sanchez Munoz-Torrero JF, Crespo Rincon L, Fernandez Pereira L et al. [Effects of atorvastatin in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide plasma levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with or without hypertension]. Med Clin (Barc). 2006; 127 (14):521‑525.
- Birner CM, Ulucan C, Fredersdorf S et al Head-to-head comparison of BNP and IL-6 as markers of clinical and experimental heart failure: Superiority of BNP. Cytokine. 2007; 40 (2):89–97.
- Suzuki H, Sato R, Sato T et al. Time-course of changes in the levels of interleukin 6 in acutely decompensated heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2005; 100 (3):415‑420.
- Schwedler SB, Kuhlencordt PJ, Ponnuswamy PP et al. Native C-reactive protein induces endothelial dysfunction in ApoE -/- mice: implications for iNOS and reactive oxygen species. Atherosclerosis. 2007; 195 (2):e76-84.
- Schwartz R, Osborne-Lawrence S, Hahner L et al. C-reactive protein downregulates endothelial NO synthase and attenuates reendothelialization in vivo in mice. Circ Res. 2007; 100 (10):1452–1459.
- Strey CH, Young JM, Lainchbury JH et al. Short-term statin treatment improves endothelial function and neurohormonal imbalance in normocholesterolaemic patients with non-ischaemic heart failure. Heart. 2006; 92 (11):1603–1609.
- Heeba G, Hassan MK, Khalifa M, Malinski T. Adverse balance of nitric oxide / peroxynitrite in the dysfunctional endothelium can be reversed by statins. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007; 50 (4):391‑398.
- Stefanadi E, Tousoulis D, Antoniades C et al. Early initiation of low-dose atorvastatin treatment after an acute ST-elevated myocardial infarction, decreases inflammatory process and prevents endothelial injury and activation. Int J Cardiol. 2008; 133 (2):266‑268.
- Huan Loh P, Windram JD, Tin L et al. The effects of initiation or continuation of statin therapy on cholesterol level and all-cause mortality after the diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Am Heart J. 2007; 153 (4):537‑544.
- Stumpf C, Seybold K, Petzi S et al. Interleukin-10 improves left ventricular function in rats with heart failure subsequent to myocardial infarction. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008; 10 (8):733‑739.
- Stumpf C, Petzi S, Seybold K et al. Atorvastatin enhances interleukin-10 levels and improves cardiac function in rats after acute myocardial infarction. Clin Sci (Lond). 2009; 116 (1):45–52.
- Heeschen C, Dimmeler S, Hamm CW et al. CAPTURE Study Investigators. Serum level of the antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 is an important prognostic determinant in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Circulation. 2003; 107 (16):2109–2114.
- Hummelshoj L, Ryder LP, Poulsen LK. The role of the interleukin-10 subfamily members in immunoglobulin production by human B cells. Scand J Immunol. 2006; 64 (1):40–47.